Under ……….. the Gupta empire reached to the Arabian Sea ?
A) Sri Gupta
C) Chandragupta – I
D) Chandragupta – II
Explanation : Ans : (D)
Chandragupta II ruled for 40 years (375 – 415 CE) He is popularly known as ‘Vikaramaditya’. With Pataliputra as his capital, he extended his empire upto the Arabian Sea. He married off his daughter ‘Prabavati to a Vakataka Prince, who ruled Deccan. Saka rulers of Gujarat and Malwa were defeated.
The trade with Roman empire brought prosperity to the empire.
Chandragupta II defeated northern rulers like the Huns, Kambojas and Kiratas.
His other names (as mentioned in coins) include Vikrama, Devagupta, Devaraja, Simhavikrama, Vikramaditya and Sakari.
His court was adorned with “Navratnas’ who were adept in many fields – art, literature, politics etc.
This included the great Sanskrit poet Kalidasa, the Sanskrit scholar, Harisena, the lexicographer Amarasimha, and the physician Dhanvantari. Fahien, the Buddhist scholar from China, visited India during his reign. He records the prosperity of the Gupta Empire. Chandragupta II was the first Gupta ruler to issue silver coins.
Who is regarded as the architect of Modern India ?
A) A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
C) Jawaharlal Nehru
D) B.R. Ambedkar
Explanation : Ans : (C)
India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru was considered the architect of modern India. He consolidated the Indian Independence by forging national unity, nurturing democratic institutions, promoting science and technology, planning for economic development and by following independent foreign policy. He was truly a nation builder.
Economic Development :
When India became independent in 1947, it was gripped by mass poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, static agriculture, poorly developed industries and inadequate infrastructure. There was an urgent need for immediate efforts on national scale to achieve the path of progress in the socio-economic front. Jawaharlal Nehru, was greatly influenced by the achievement of Soviet Planning. But he also realized the importance of the democratic values. He encouraged planning for rapid industrial and agricultural growth. He encouraged Mixed Economy as a result of which both public sector and private sector companies come into existence. His fundamental objective was to built an independent self-reliant economy.
Economic Planning :
The National Planning Commission was established on 15 March 1950, with the Prime Minister Nehru as its chairperson.
The First Five Year Plan (1951 – 56) tried to complete the projects at hand including the rehabilitation of refugees. It was only during the Second Five Year Plan (1956 – 61)
Prof. P.C. Mahalanobis, the noted economist played a leading role. This plan aimed at developing the industrial sector in the country. Rapid industrialization with particular emphasis on the development of basic and heavy industries continued during the Third Five Year Plan. During this period many iron and steel, chemical, fertilizers, heavy engineering and machine building industries were set up in different parts of India.
Growth of Science and Technology :
Independent India has also witnessed a tremendous growth in the sphere of science and technology. After 1947, Nehru became aware of the significant role of scientific research and technology for the progress of India. India’s first national laboratory, the National Physical Laboratory was established in 1947. Nehru himself assumed the chairmanship of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.
In 1952, the first Indian Institute of Technology, on the model of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was set up at Kharagpur. Subsequently, IITs were set up at Madras, Bombay, Kanpur and Delhi.
Space Research :
India has also evinced interest in space research. The Indian National Committee for Space Research was set up in 1962. Side by side, a Rocket Launching Facility at Thumba came up.
Atomic Energy :
India was one of the first countries in the world to recognize the importance of nuclear energy. The Atomic Energy Commission was set up in August 1948 under the chairmanship of Homi. J. Baba to formulate a policy for all atomic energy activities in the country. The Department of Atomic energy (DAE) was set up in 1954 as executive agency for implementing the atomic energy programmes. In 1956, India’s first nuclear reactor in Trombay near Bombay (first in Asia) began to function.
India’s Foreign Policy :
After 1947, India began to follow an independent foreign policy. It was designed by the first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. He developed the basic principles of India’s Foreign Policy. He was the architect of the Non-aligned Movement during the Cold War era. Also, he extended support to colonial countries in their struggle for independence. Nehru outlined the five principles of co existence or Panch Sheel for conducting relations among countries. India plays an active role in international bodies such as the Common Wealth and United Nations Organization. After Independence, Nehru decided to stay within Common Wealth, an organization consisting of former British colonies.
India maintained friendly relations with both USA and USSR during the Cold War era.
The executive officer of the “Cantonment board” is appointed by whom ?
A) By the District Collector
B) By the District Judge
C) By the Prime Minister
D) By the President
Explanation : Ans : (D)
A Cantonment board is established for municipal administration for civilian population in the Cantonment area. It is set up under the provisions of the Cantonments Act of 2006 – a legislation enacted by the Central government. It works under the administrative control of the defence ministry of the Central government.
A Cantonment board is created as well as administered by the Central government.
A Cantonment board consists of partly elected and partly nominated members. The elected members hold office for a term of the five years, while the nominated members continue so long as they hold the office in that station.
The military officer commanding the station is the ex-officio President of the board and presides over its meetings. The Vice-President of the board is elected by the elected members from amongst themselves for a term of five years.
The executive officer of the cantonment board is appointed by the President of India. He implements all the resolutions and decisions of the board and its committees.
Many workers in urban areas suffer from
C) Seasonal employment
D) Under employment
Explanation : Ans : (A)
Many workers in urban areas suffer from subemployment.
Subemployment is a condition of inadequate employment in a labour force including unemployment and underemployment.
The objective of Kyoto Protocol is
A) To fight global warming by reducing green house gas concentration in the atmosphere
B) To fight ground water contamination
C) To fight air pollution
D) Wet land conservation
Explanation : Ans : (A)
The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC). It was initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan and entered into force on 16 February 2005. As of July 2010, 191 states have signal and ratified the protocol.
Out of the 40 Annex-I countries, 37 countries have committed themselves to a reduction of 6 gases.
four green-house gases (GHG) viz., carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride.
Two groups of gases viz., hydrofluoro carbons and perfluorocarbons produced by them.
How much reduction : The Annex I countries agreed to reduce their collective greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% from the 1990 level. This limit does not include the emissions by the International aviation and shipping.
The above reduction is in addition to the industrial gases and chlorofluorocarbons committed under the 1987 Montreal Protocol on substances that Deplete the Ozone layer.
Most Important Feature : The establishment of commitments for the reduction of greenhouse gases that are legally binding for Annex I countries is the most important point of Kyoto Protocol and the very heart of it. The groups were made on the basis of the countries 1997 economic capacity to commit themselves and their industry.
Most Important Limitation : Only a few countries were made part of the Annex-I group. The changes in the economy in last 15 years have raised the issues such as India and China being the advanced developing countries must enter into it as Annex I countries. The rift between developing and developed countries continues as of now.
Kyoto Mechanisms : Kyoto Mechanisms are also known as Flexible Mechanisms and they include Emissions Trading, the Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation to lower the cost of achieving emission targets.
Emission Trading : Emissions Trading-mechanism allows parties to the Kyoto Protocol to buy ‘Kyoto units’ (emission permits for greenhouse gas) from other emission reduction targets.
Joint Implementation : Any Annex I country can invest in emission reduction projects (referred to as “Joint Implementation Projects”) in any other Annex I country as an alternative to reducing emissions domestically.
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) : Countries can meet their domestic emission reduction targets by buying greenhouse gas reduction units from (Projects in) non Annex I countries to the Kyoto ‘Protocol’.